31 Agustus 2009


ini adalah beberapa obat yang dah gw minum, karena gw penasaran kok kaki gw msih belum ada perubahan, gw cari aja di google, dapetnya gini nih, tapi sory belum sempet translate..:

Obat dari Rumah sakit :
a. Mefinal _ Mefenamic Acid 500 mg

What Is Mefenamic Acid Used For?

Mefenamic acid (Ponstel®) is a prescription medication that has been licensed to treat several conditions related to pain and inflammation.
Specific uses for mefenamic acid include:
  • Pain relief, such as for pain following a medical procedure, from straining a muscle, or from inflammation in a tendon (tendonitis) or bursa (bursitis). Mefenamic acid can also be used to treat general pain, such as knee pain, lower back pain, or neck pain. For both of these cases, the drug is used to treat short-term pain that is not expected to last more than one week.
  • Relief of painful menstrual periods.

How Does It Work?

Mefenamic acid and other NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) are thought to work by inhibiting the action of certain hormones, called prostaglandins, that cause inflammation and pain in the body. By blocking the effects of prostaglandins, mefenamic acid is useful at reducing pain related to bone, muscle, or tendon injury or inflammation.

Using Mefenamic Acid in Children

Mefenamic acid is licensed for use in children 14 years of age and older.

Off-Label Mefenamic Acid Uses

On occasion, your healthcare provider may recommend mefenamic acid for treating something other than the conditions discussed in this article. This is called an "off-label" use. At this time, there are no universally accepted off-label uses for mefenamic acid.

Side Effects of Mefenamic Acid: An Overview

Common mefenamic acid side effects may include swelling, increased liver enzymes, and gas. There are also some rare but possible side effects that occur in less than 1 percent of people, including bladder infection, spinning sensation, congestive heart failure, and high blood pressure. Seek medical attention immediately if you experience an allergic reaction, stomach or intestine problems, or unexplained weight gain while taking mefenamic acid.

As with any medicine, side effects with mefenamic acid (Ponstel®). However, not everyone who takes the drug will experience side effects. In fact, most people tolerate it well. If side effects do occur, they are generally minor and either require no treatment or can easily be treated by you or your healthcare provider.
Several factors seem to affect the chances of developing side effects, including a person's:
  • Dose of mefenamic acid
  • Age
  • Other medical conditions
  • Current medicines.
(This article covers many, but not all, of the possible side effects with mefenamic acid. Your healthcare provider can discuss a more complete list of mefenamic acid side effects with you.)

Serious Mefenamic Acid Side Effects

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warns that people using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) other than aspirin, including mefenamic acid, may have a higher risk of having a heart attack or stroke than those who do not take NSAIDs. This risk may be higher in people taking NSAIDs for a long time. These events can occur without any warning and can lead to loss of life. Get emergency medical help by calling 911 or an ambulance as soon as possible if you experience any of the following symptoms:
  • Chest pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Weakness on one side of your body
  • Slurred speech.
Other possibly serious side effects of mefenamic acid include but are not limited to:
  • Allergic reactions, such as:
    • Swelling of the face or body
    • Blisters
    • Unexplained skin rash
    • Wheezing
    • Difficulty breathing
  • Stomach or intestine problems, including bleeding, ulcers, or a hole (known as a perforation)
  • Liver damage, which can cause:
    • Nausea
    • Fatigue
    • Yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes (jaundice)
    • Excessive tiredness
Because mefenamic acid can increase your risk for major or life-threatening bleeding, contact your doctor immediately if you notice any unusual bleeding or have any of the following symptoms:
  • Bloody nose
  • Black, tarry stools
  • Blood in the urine or stools
  • Vomiting blood
  • Red or purple spots on the skin.
gila..panjang juga penjelasannya...lumayan bikin kringetan bacanya...

b. Cefat _ ceafdroxil 500 mg

Cefadroxil 500, tiap kapsul mengandung cefadroxil monohydrate setara dengan cefadroxil 500 mg.
Cara Kerja
Cefadroxil adalah antibiotika semisintetik golongan sefalosforin untuk pemakaian oral.
Cefadroxil bersifat bakterisid dengan jalan menghambat sintesa dinding sel bakteri. Cefadroxil aktif terhadap Streptococcus beta-hemolytic, Staphylococcus aureus (termasuk penghasil enzim penisilinase), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella sp, Moraxella catarrhalis.
Cefadroxil diindikasikan untuk pengobatan infeksi yang disebabkan oleh mikroorganisme yang sensitif seperti :
- Infeksi saluran pernafasan : tonsillitis, faringitis, pneumonia, otitis media.
- Infeksi kulit dan jaringan lunak.
- Infeksi saluran kemih dan kelamin.
- Infeksi lain : osteomielitis dan septisemia.

Dewasa :

Infeksi saluran kemih :
Infeksi saluran kemih bagian bawah, seperti sistitis : 1 – 2 g sehari dalam dosis tunggal atau dua dosis terbagi, infeksi saluran kemih lainnya 2 g sehari dalam dosis terbagi.

Infeksi kulit dan jaringan lunak : 1 g sehari dalam dosis tunggal atau dua dosis terbagi.

Infeksi saluran pernafasan :
Infeksi ringan, dosis lazim 1 gram sehari dalam dua dosis terbagi.

Infeksi sedang sampai berat, 1 – 2 gram sehari dalam dua dosis terbagi. Untuk faringitis dan tonsilitis yang disebabkan oleh Streptococcus beta-hemolytic : 1 g sehari dalam dosis tunggal atau dua dosis terbagi, pengobatan diberikan minimal selama 10 hari.

ini ada lagi ...

General use

Cefadroxil is a first-generation cephalosporin antibacterial drug that is the para-hydroxy derivative of cefalexin, and is used similarly in the treatment of mild to moderate susceptible infections such as the bacteria "Streptococcus pyogenes", otherwise known as strep throat.


Cefadroxil is almost completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. After doses of 500 mg and 1 g by mouth, peak plasma concentrations of about 16 and 30 micrograms/mL respectively are obtained after 1.5 to 2 hours. Although peak concentrations are similar to those of cefalexin, plasma concentrations are more sustained. Dosage with food does not appear to affect the absorption of cefadroxil. About 20% of cefadroxil is reported to be bound to plasma proteins. The plasma half-life of cefadroxil is about 1.5 hours and is prolonged in patients with renal impairment.

Cefadroxil is widely distributed to body tissues and fluids. It crosses the placenta and appears in breast milk.

More than 90% of a dose of cefadroxil may be excreted unchanged in the urine within 24 hours by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion; peak urinary concentrations of 1.8 mg/mL have been reported after a dose of 500 mg. Cefadroxil is removed by haemodialysis.


Cefadroxil is given by mouth, and doses are expressed in terms of the anhydrous substance; 1.04 g of cefadroxil monohydrate is equivalent to about 1 g of anhydrous cefadroxil.

Side effects

The most common side effects of Cefadroxil are diarrhea (which, less commonly, may be bloody), nausea, upset stomach, and vomiting. Other side effects include[1]:

Dental use

Cefadroxil is used as an antibiotic prophylaxis before dental procedures.

(Always consider Amoxicillin plus Metronidazole as first line of treatment for dental procedures. In Case of penicillin allergy consider "Cefadroxil" for prophylaxis.)

Veterinary use

Can be used for treating infected wounds on animals. Usually in powder form mixed with water has a color and smell similar to Tang. Given orally to animals, amount dependent on their weight and severity of infection.

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